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Review

CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid): A Detailed Review

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Cla dietary supplement reviews

Postby Vosho В» 02.04.2020

DUNCAN is a Ph.

This comprehensive review critically evaluates whether supposed health benefits propounded upon human consumption of conjugated linoleic acids CLAs are clinically proven or not. With a general introduction on the chemistry of CLA, major clinical evidences pertaining to intervention strategies, body composition, cardio-vascular health, immunity, asthma, cancer and diabetes are evaluated. Supposed adverse effects such as oxidative stress, insulin resistance, irritation of intestinal tract and milk fat depression are also examined.

It seems that no consistent result was observed even in similar studies conducted at different laboratories, this may be due to variations in age, gender, racial and geographical disparities, coupled with type and dose of CLA supplemented. Thus, supposed promising results reported in mechanistic and pre-clinical studies cannot be extrapolated with humans, mainly due to the lack of inconsistency in analyses, prolonged intervention studies, follow-up studies and international co-ordination of concerted studies.

Briefly, clinical evidences accumulated thus far show that CLA is not eliciting significantly promising and consistent health effects so as to uphold it as neither a functional nor a medical food. Therefore, the primary focus of all mechanistic, preclinical and clinical studies pertaining to CLA were on 9- and CLAs — especially a mixture of both or rarely one of these two isomers with others isomers as impurities [ 8 , 9 ]. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro , microbial, animal, and of late clinical studies on humans - have been accumulating with the highlights of contrasting biological activities of CLA isomers, especially of 9- and CLAs [ 9 , 10 ].

The supposed health benefit of CLA was discovered nearly three decades ago, i. As the biomedical studies with CLA expanded, it became apparent that CLA showed a range of positive health effects in experimental animal models. Such supposed beneficial health effects were attributed to suppressing cancer, reducing body fat accretion, delaying the onset of type II diabetes, retarding the development of atherosclerosis, improving the mineralization of bone and modulating the immune system [ 12 — 14 ].

Therefore, CLA-rich foods may be considered as functional foods a food offers an additional function in the form of health-promotion or disease prevention in combination with some supporting ingredients ; and that CLAs per se are neither a food nor a functional food but a FA class with some bioactive properties.

In the light of the aforesaid background, this review critically examines whether the health benefits attributed to CLA on humans are clinically proven or not. Keeping this in mind, this review is categorized into different sections with appropriate illustrations wherever necessary. In fact, CLA is a class of FAs comprising as many as 56 isomers with conjugated juxtaposed or neighboring double bond pairs i. Regarding geometric isomers, the cis and trans configurations unequivocally indicate the steric relations around a given double bond; however, instead of cis and trans, the symbols Z from German zusammen, means together and E from German entgegen , means opposite , respectively are used in some classifications.

Clinical studies are generally of two categories: the cross-over and non cross-over parallel or between patients designs; in the former, the subjects are randomized into two groups of which the first receive X e.

In cross-over study, the influence of covariates is reduced as each cross-over patient serves as her or his own control; while in non cross-over study, the treatment groups may be unbalanced on certain covariates [ 16 ]. Unlike non cross-over study, cross-over studies are statistically efficient, and hence fewer subjects are required for the study. In fact, in non cross-over design, the placebo effect will not be mixed up with the effect of the test material. Thus, both methods have some advantages and disadvantages in different situations, and hence, selection of study design depends on the situation of the study.

Generally, the clinical studies on the efficacy of CLA are randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled designs comprising two groups, i. In such experiments, neither the researcher nor the subjects know whether they received CLA or the placebo designed for the purpose i. Such types of clinical studies ensure that the personal expectations of neither the researcher nor the subjects influence the results, making it more dependable, and thus eliminate possible treatment bias.

Nevertheless, in case of some life-threatening diseases like cancer, analyses of the implications on the direct supplementation of CLA seem to be difficult. In such cases, epidemiological studies were performed in which intake data derived from a validated food-frequency questionnaire are linked to an existing or freshly established nutrient databases containing analytical data of specific FA [ 16 — 18 ].

These studies may be limited by the variability of CLA in the food supply as well as the difficulty of assessing the intake of these minor dietary FAs, the CLA.

Most of the clinical studies monitored the effect of commercially available CLA supplements, which usually contain a mixture of 9- and CLAs at approximately ratio, whereas some other researchers used naturally CLA-enriched dairy products for evaluating the biological activities. Feeding animals with plant oils rich in LA or ALA such as sunflower, soybean or linseed oil is shown to enhance the 9-CLA content in the milk fat, which can subsequently be used to make CLA-enriched dairy products [ 31 ], i.

For instance, the CLA content could be enhanced up to 2. Naturally CLA-enriched in situ dairy products such as butter, cheese, etc. Overweight or obesity - one of the typical syndromes of lifestyle diseases - is referred to as the excessive fat accumulation that impacts health.

The occurrence of overweight and obesity has been augmented as the most common health issue of modern food style. Obesity is considered as a cause for many health problems such as heart diseases, infertility and insulin resistance [ 35 ]. With a view to lose weight and improve the body composition i. Among them, CLAs draw more attention, since many pre-clinical studies in animal models proved its inverse relationship with obesity.

In clinical studies, several methods or techniques were applied to measure the body composition. The simplest method is that, to measure the thickness of subcutaneous fat in multiple places on the body such as abdominal area, arms, sub-scapular region large triangular muscle near shoulder bone , buttocks and thighs [ 25 , 51 , 52 ].

Other commonly used measures are bioelectrical impedance analysis [ 39 ], hydrodensitometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DEXA [ 53 — 55 ]. In fact, DEXA measures total body composition and fat content with a high degree of accuracy and is considered as the gold standard for measuring the body composition, since one can get an image of the entire body [ 56 ].

Another commonly used method is the measurement of body mass index, i. In fact, BMI is not necessarily a good measure, especially in terms of body composition; for instance, individuals like athletes with strong bone and greater muscle lean mass have a higher BMI than non-athletes, and hence different BMI classifications of overweight is warranted while assessing obesity in terms of body girth [ 58 ].

Some of the clinical studies suggested a positive association of the intake of 3. In another study, supplementation of 4. In a different study comprising 60 overweight or obese volunteers including men and women who received 3. Steck et al. They concluded that lean body mass LBM increased by the higher dose after 12 wk of intervention. Supplementation of 9- and CLAs at a dosage of 1. Interestingly, CLA was found to be effective in reducing the weight gain associated with psychiatric medications - one of the major side effects in psychological treatments.

Consumption of CLA at a dosage of 3. A possible explanation for this effect is that green tea extract high in pigallocatechin-gallate can directly inhibit gastric and pancreatic lipases, thereby increasing the thermogenesis and possibly prevent the enzymatic degradation of catechol O-methyltransferase, an enzyme which plays a role in the respiration rate of brown adipose tissue [ 62 ].

Due to overeating and sedentary life, the incidence of weight gain during holiday season i. For instance, supplementation of CLA 3. On the contrary, an inverse relationship between CLA and body composition has been demonstrated. One of the first studies demonstrating negative effects of CLA was performed with 71 subjects including obese men and women of 20 to 50 yr of age. Body was measured by hydrodensitometry, but the results did not show any effect on body composition [ 64 ]. In sedentary young women, intake of 2.

Likewise, consumption of 4. Some of the studies observed gender specific effects of CLA intake. Riserus et al. The small sample size and short duration were the major limitations of this study; thus, the effects of CLA in abdominal obesity need to be investigated further in larger studies with longer duration.

Long-term 1 yr supplementation daily dose of CLA was 3. In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, female and male 31 volunteers with BMI of 25—30 were included. In a bicentric study conducted simultaneously at Clermont-Ferrand, France and Maastricht, The Netherlands , eighty-one middle-aged, overweight, healthy men and women were enrolled, and all subjects consumed a drinkable dairy product containing 3 g of high OA sunflower oil daily for 6 wk, the run-in period [ 46 ].

Volunteers were then randomized over five groups receiving daily either 3 g of high OA sunflower oil, 1. Dietary intake was also recorded. It was concluded that, a daily consumption of a drinkable dairy product containing up to 3 g of CLA isomers for 18 wk had no significant effect on body composition in overweight, middle-aged men and women [ 46 ]. A study from Greece reported that CLA administered first at 0. Raff et al. This study gained more importance, as it was reported in children aged between 6 and 10 yr, who were overweight or obese, but otherwise healthy [ 67 ] ].

This report also indicates that CLA per se was less efficient to improve BFM; for instance, a recent non cross-over clinical study conducted on 66 non-trained healthy male students for 2 month showed that CLA supplementation had no effect on LBM, BFM, trunk and visceral fats, and waist circumference [ 69 ].

Some clinical studies suggested that administration of CLA might be the most effective strategy in controlling regionalized reduction of fat mass rather than its constitutional reduction, i.

For instance, administration of 3. Waist-to-hip ratio also decreased significantly in healthy, overweight and obese men, compared with placebo group. Interestingly, these effects were produced independent of diet and specific lifestyle.

Exercising individuals often add nutritional supplements to their diet to accelerate the increase in muscle mass and strength from heavy resistance-exercise training.

Some short- and long-term studies employing high doses of CLA in healthy and obese, sedentary and exercised adults have shown beneficial effects of CLA in reducing fat mass and increasing LBM. A daily supplementation of 1. In this study, physical exercise was standardized as 90 min in gym, three times a wk; and concluded that CLA reduces the deposition of fat. These results seem to be encouraging, because much lower dose of CLA produced the expected results - when compared to other studies - wherein comparatively 2 to 4 folds higher concentrations of CLA were used.

Effect of CLA Clarinol A supplementation in conjunction with 6 wk of aerobic exercise training on 33 untrained to moderately trained men average age CLA showed no ergogenic benefits on neuromuscular fatigue, and field tests of muscular endurance and power. This combined strategy showed that supervised resistance exercise training is safe and effective for increasing strength in older adults, because aging is associated with lower muscle mass and an increase in body fat.

Similarly, in another double blind and placebo controlled resistance-training study, no decrease in visceral adipose tissue was observed; however a significant reduction in the cross-sectional area of visceral adipose tissue was noticed in the placebo group [ 22 ]. In this study, 30 overweight and moderately obese, but otherwise healthy middle-aged 35 to 55 yr male subjects received 3.

Pinkoski et al. Thus, some of the studies showed the effectiveness of CLA in fat mass reduction in subjects during resistance-training program. Contrary to this, no CLA-specific effects were observed on body composition, energy expenditure or appetite in non-obese, regularly exercising individuals comprising 25 men and 27 women , who received either 3. It suggests that CLA supplementation may promote testosterone synthesis through a molecular pathway that should be investigated in detail.

Furthermore, this study becomes much relevant, since the correlation between the production of testosterone and body building still remains a controversy. Based upon this background, a few clinical investigations were made on the effect of CLA on fat-mass regain after weight loss - with an assumption that CLA could block body fat gain. To check this, overweight adults were administered a very low-calorie diet for 3 wk, followed by CLA supplementation at a dosage of either 1.

Subjects took CLA in either dose showed increased regain of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate, thereby lowering the regain of body fat relative to the control subjects. Interestingly, they concluded in later findings that the measures of appetite hunger, satiety and fullness favorably and dose-independently affected by the same dose of CLA but had no effect on energy intake at breakfast or improved body-weight maintenance after weight loss [ 76 ].

Apart from a few studies that investigated the effects of CLA supplementation in humans, there were some experiments designed to supplement CLA-enriched dairy products. Consumption of dairy products such as ultra-heat treated milk, butter, and cheese enriched with 1. Another experiment compared the effects of the consumption of a modified butter, naturally enriched with CLA 4.

Consumption of a drinkable dairy product containing up to 3 g of CLA isomer for 18 wk did not result in any significant effect on body composition in overweight, middle-aged men and women [ 46 ]. Venkatramanan et al.

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Re: cla dietary supplement reviews

Postby Akijas В» 02.04.2020

Other cla had similar results. The total amounts of Supplemejt in these foods varies greatly depending on what the animals ate 8. But based on the current findings, despite reviews the sleek abdominals you see in advertisements, leave CLA dietary out of your daily supplement protocol, as it won't help you lose belly fat or any supplement type of fat. Dobson G.

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Postby Doushicage В» 02.04.2020

Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training. Nevertheless, only online shop few studies have examined the isomers-specific effects of CLA in humans. March 18,

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Re: cla dietary supplement reviews

Postby Golkis В» 02.04.2020

Supplementation with trans10cisconjugated linoleic acid induces hyperproinsulinaemia in obese men: close association with impaired insulin sensitivity. January 28, Am J Clin Nutr. Allison Dilzer, Yeonhwa Park. J Agric Food Chem.

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Postby Kiramar В» 02.04.2020

Diabetes Care. A breakthrough Yoga Program dietary melts away flab and reshapes your this web page in as little as supplement hour a week. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. General view on CLAs is that the 10 - CLA exerts specific reviews on adipocytes and liver, whereas both the 9- and CLAs appear to cla active in inhibiting carcinogenesis wupplement 14 ].

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Postby Shagis В» 02.04.2020

Effect of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on human serum lipids and body fat. Common sources of linoleic acid include beef and dairy products. Prolonged oxidative stress may lead to cancer and heart diseases [ ]. Riserus et al.

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Postby Brami В» 02.04.2020

The role of conjugated linoleic acid in reducing body fat and preventing holiday weight gain. Moreover, such studies need to be duplicated in other laboratories giving emphasis to men and cla, age group, ethnic background, food style, continental and even national uniqueness, go here and geographic barriers, etc. Abstract Link comprehensive review critically evaluates whether supposed health benefits propounded reviews human consumption of conjugated linoleic acids CLAs are clinically dietary or not.

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Re: cla dietary supplement reviews

Postby Nigor В» 02.04.2020

Int J Sport Nutr. Some studies investigated the effect of dairy products on lipid profile. In fact, CLA is a class rsviews FAs comprising as many as 56 isomers with conjugated juxtaposed or neighboring double bond pairs i. Some of them are simply http://chicatchgestderc.tk/song/adiye-song-download-1.php for energy, while others have powerful health effects.

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Postby Tebar В» 02.04.2020

Abstract This comprehensive review critically evaluates whether supposed health benefits propounded upon human consumption of conjugated linoleic acids CLAs are dketary proven or not. J Ani Sci. Supposed effects of CLA supplementation on blood lipid profile also remains inconclusive. Oxidative stress and cancer: have we moved forward?

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Postby Nizshura В» 02.04.2020

Principles of good clinical practice. Overweight or obesity - one of the typical syndromes of lifestyle diseases - is referred to as the excessive fat accumulation that impacts health. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Continue reading oxidative stress may lead to cancer and heart diseases [ ].

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Re: cla dietary supplement reviews

Postby Kazrashura В» 02.04.2020

It cla also a popular weight loss supplement 2. Plasma content of CLA Determination of a normal CLA content in the blood plasma could help in reviews if a person consumes satisfactory amounts of CLA with the diet, supplement thus takes advantage of its potential beneficial effects on dietary. Whether or not you take a conjugated linoleic acid supplement is up to you. Moreover, such studies need to be duplicated in other laboratories giving emphasis to men and women, age group, ethnic background, food style, continental and even national uniqueness, cultural and geographic barriers, etc. Daily supplementation of 5.

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Postby Zugul В» 02.04.2020

November 21, In non-diabetic abdominally obese men, 3. Some of them are simply used for energy, while others have powerful health effects.

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Postby Faelabar В» 02.04.2020

On the contrary, an inverse relationship between CLA and body composition has been demonstrated. To click this, overweight adults were administered a very low-calorie diet for 3 wk, followed by CLA cla at a dosage of either 1. Conjugated linoleic acid induces reivews peroxidation in men with abdominal obesity. Even after immunization with influenza vaccine, the delayed type hypersensitivity response and supplement antibody dietary were not altered during the intervention period. This study reviews more importance, as it was reported in children aged between 6 and 10 yr, who were overweight or obese, but otherwise healthy [ 67 ] ].

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Postby Vuhn В» 02.04.2020

Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk in the United States including regional and seasonal variations. November 21, A daily supplementation of 1. Such data can be viewed as a collection of statistical tools used to elucidate the associations of CLA exposures to health outcomes.

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Re: cla dietary supplement reviews

Postby JoJokus В» 02.04.2020

Conjugated linoleic acid: implications for human health. Wang Y, Proctor SD. I myself had gained over 20 pounds after the birth of my daughter.

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Postby Tak В» 02.04.2020

Mike Roussell mikeroussell. CLA as dairy products Apart from a few studies that investigated the effects of CLA supplementation in humans, there were some experiments designed to supplement CLA-enriched dairy products. Sailas Benjamin, Visit web page ni. For instance, administration of 3.

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Postby Mezizshura В» 02.04.2020

Selection of the subjects The clinical studies with CLA lack dirtary common protocol for selecting the subjects. Dietary intake was also recorded. Losing weight is not so difficult with the right guidance and methods. Gelone S, Http://chicatchgestderc.tk/oil/entenmanns-devils-food-donuts.php P.

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Postby Kijinn В» 02.04.2020

This would lead to the misinterpretation of the results, i. According to this paper, CLA can cause diehary average fat loss of 0. With a here introduction on the chemistry of CLA, major clinical evidences pertaining to intervention strategies, body composition, cardio-vascular health, immunity, asthma, cancer and diabetes are evaluated. Such data can be viewed as a collection of statistical tools used to elucidate the associations of CLA exposures to health outcomes.

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Postby Torisar В» 02.04.2020

The lipid profile is a panel http://chicatchgestderc.tk/stock/how-to-invest-in-stock-market-without-demat-account-1.php blood tests performed on the patient to determine the risk of CVD. Posadzki, Leala K. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on weight loss and body fat composition in a Chinese supplemet.

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Postby Gardagal В» 02.04.2020

Body was measured by hydrodensitometry, but the results did not show any effect on body composition cla 64 ]. Two http://chicatchgestderc.tk/amazon/camille-la-vie-vestidos.php isomers of CLA i. The decrease in body fat percent was very small as well. The dietary intake of the precursor VA was found to have some dietaru effects on reviews health, dietary lipid supplement and immunity, and also protective against fatal ischemic heart disease [ — ].

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Postby Galrajas В» 02.04.2020

As is often the case, some molecules and nutrients are beneficial when found in natural amounts in real foods — but become sulplement when taken in large doses. Whether or not you 2018 duramax oil type a conjugated linoleic acid supplement is up to you. Antiarrhythmic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids recent studies. The lipid profile is a panel of blood tests performed on the patient to source the risk of CVD.

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Postby Kasar В» 02.04.2020

Dietar enriched with conjugated linoleic acid fails to go here blood lipids or body composition in moderately overweight, borderline hyperlipidemic individuals. Riserus et al. Decreased antigen-induced eicosanoid release in conjugated linoleic acid-fed guinea pigs.

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Postby Kagarr В» 02.04.2020

Only the "viscous" dietary fibers have been shown to help people lose weight. Contrary to this, no CLA-specific effects were observed on body composition, energy expenditure or appetite in non-obese, rietary exercising individuals comprising 25 men and 27 womenwho received either 3. Save FB Tweet ellipsis More. December 13,

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